A+ Hardware Tutorial
Installation, Configuration, and Up gradation:
Computer Motherboard and its constituent components:
A typical ATX PC motherboard with constituent components is given below:
The important constituent components of an
ATX Motherboard are given below:
The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are given below:
1. Mouse & keyboard: Keyboard Connectors are two types basically. All PCs have a Key board port connected directly to the motherboard. The oldest, but still quite common type, is a special DIN, and most PCs until recently retained this style connector. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing, being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector.
USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular
on PCs. First, USB devices are hot swappable. You can insert or remove
them without restarting your system.
3. Parallel port: Most printers
use a special connector called a parallel port. Parallel port carry data
on more than one wire, as opposed to the serial port, which uses only
one wire. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. Parallel
ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct
connection or through a dangle.
4. CPU Chip : The central
processing unit, also called the microprocessor performs all
the calculations that take place inside a pc. CPUs come in Variety of
shapes and sizes.
5. RAM slots: Random-Access
Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU.
RAM is measured in units called bytes. RAM has been packaged in many
different ways. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual
Inline Memory module).
6. Floppy controller: The floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable, which in turn connects to the motherboard. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive.
7. IDE controller: Industry
standards define two common types of hard drives: EIDE and SCSI.
Majority of the PCs use EIDE drives. SCSI drives show up in high end PCs such as network servers or graphical workstations. The EIDE drive
connects to the hard drive via a 2-inch-wide, 40-pin ribbon cable, which in
turn connects to the motherboard. IDE controller is responsible
for controlling the hard drive.
8. PCI slot: Intel
introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. The PCI bus is used to connect
I/O devices (such as NIC or RAID controllers) to the main logic of the
computer. PCI bus has replaced the ISA bus.
9. ISA slot: (Industry
Standard Architecture) It is the standard architecture of the
Expansion bus. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA
10. CMOS Battery: To
provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all
motherboards comes with a battery. These batteries mount on the
motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery, the
most common onboard battery, and built-in
The Power supply, as its name implies, provides the necessary electrical power to make the pc operate. the power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into +/-12-Volt, +/-5-Volt, and 3.3-Volt DC power.
The power supply
connector has 20-pins, and the connector can go in only one direction.
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