A Protocol is a predefined set
of rules that dictates how network devices (such as router, computer, or switch) communicate and exchange data on
The Application Protocol are
built on the top of TCP/IP protocol suite. The list of protocol include the
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application-layer
protocol designed to manage complex communication networks. SNMP works by
sending messages, called protocol data units (PDUs), to different parts of a
network. SNMP-compliant devices, called agents, store data about themselves in
Management Information Bases (MIBs) and return this data to the SNMP servers.
are two versions of SNMP: Version 1 and Version 2.
FTP is a Client Server
protocol, used for copying files between an FTP server and a client computer
over a TCP/IP network. FTP is commonly used to communicate with web
servers to upload or download files.
FTP, the File Transfer
Protocol, documented in RFC
959, is one of oldest Internet protocols still in widespread use.
FTP uses TCP protocol for communication, and capable of transferring both
binary files and text files. Some popular FTP clients include FileZilla,
FTP uses port TCP port
stands for Trivial File Transfer Protocol. TFTP is very similar to FTP, but
uses UDP protocol for file transfer. UDP, as discusses elsewhere in the
tutorial is considered to an unreliable protocol. Hence, TFTP is not
frequently used for normal file transfer applications.
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used for sending e-mail
messages between servers. SMTP is also used to send email messages from a
client machine to a server. An email client such as MS Outlook Express uses
SMTP for sending emails and POP3/IMAP for receiving emails from the server to
the client machine. In other words, we typically use a program that employs
SMTP for sending e-mail, and either POP3 or IMAP for receiving messages from
our local (or ISP) server. SMTP is usually implemented to operate over
Transmission Control Protocol port 25.
stands for Post of Protocol version 3. It is used for fetching messages from
an email server. Most commonly used POP3 client programs include Outlook
Express, and Mozilla Thunderbird.
Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP or IMAP4) allows a local
client to access e-mail on a remote server. The current version, IMAP
version 4 is defined by RFC 3501. IMAP4 and POP3 are the two most prevalent
Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval.
System is a distributed file system which allows a computer to transparently
access files over a network.
Telnet service provides a remote login capability. This lets a user on one
machine log into another machine and act as if they are directly in front of
the remote machine. The connection can be anywhere on the local network, or on
another network anywhere in the world, as long as the user has permission to
log into the remote system. Telnet uses TCP to maintain a connection between
two machines. Telnet uses port number 23.
A protocol used to transfer hypertext pages
across the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and
transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response
to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this
actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and
transmit the requested Web page. Note that HTML deals with how Web pages are
formatted and displayed in a browser.
HTTP is called a stateless protocol because each
command is executed independently, without any knowledge of the commands that
came before it.
protocol used to carry USENET posting between News clients and USENET servers.
LPR are used for serving, and printing using Unix server computes.